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I have accidentally deleted my Private Key

First, check your backups and see if you can re-install the Private Key. If you don't know how to re-install the key from your backups, contact your systems administrator. Failing that, contact your server software vendor for technical support. The only alternative course of action available is a re-issuance of the certificate following the re-submitting of a replacement CSR.

I am being told that my Certificate/Key is invalid

There may not be a corresponding Private Key or the key that is found is not the one that matches the SSL Certificate.
You may also see this error: "OpenSSL:error:0B080074:x509 certificate outines:x509_check_private_key:key values mismatch"

Do I need to use IP based hosting or Name based hosting?

Name based hosting is rarely used in production environments.
IP based hosting should be used due to the way the SSL protocol works.

Cobalt (Apache) fails on start up, what could cause this?

If the key file has a passphrase, remove it, as Apache cannot read this on start-up. Type the following command:
openssl rsa -in file1.key -out file2.key
file2.key will contain your unencrypted key
If you used Mozilla to download the file, it may have saved the file in compressed format
I get 'The Page Cannot Be Displayed' when going to the HTTPS page
Is the SSL port opened (this is usually port 443 (Listen 443))?
Is the firewall set to allow the SSL port through?
Has the server been rebooted?
Make sure 'Use SSL 3.0' is ticked in the web browser options.

Error: "Data decryption error"

This error message occurs because there are directives missing from the httpd.conf file. Most web servers can be configured to 'talk' to various browser versions in a different way, the fix for this particular problem is to add the following directives to the httpd.conf file so allowances can be made for Internet Explorer on the Mac:
SSLSessionCache dbm:/var/cache/httpd/ssl_cache
SSLSessionCacheTimeout 300.

I get the message "There are secure and non-secure items on the page? Would you like to proceed?"

The error means that there are embedded objects or HTML tags on the page that are not being called absolutely secure. For example, a page that is loaded securely (HTTPS), and contains an image tag within the source code such as IMG SRC = In this case, the image is being called absolutely using the non-secure (HTTP) protocol.

Can I change the IP address?

The certificate is not bound to any specific IP address. It is bound to the fully qualified domain name such as

When I access my secure site, a certificate for another site is displayed

This problem occurs if you assign the same IP address to each host in your config file. SSL does not support name-based virtual hosting (host headers are encrypted in SSL), so only the first certificate listed in your config file will be sent.

Browsers are saying that something is not trusted

The Root Certificates and/or Intermediate Certificates may not be installed correctly. This can be checked by clicking on 'View Certificates' when you get the error message and seeing if all three SSL Certificate are visible.
It may also be that the certificate being used is not for the Fully Qualified Domain Name, check again using 'View Certificates' to see if the domain name on the certificate matches the domain name in the URL that you are going to.
Check your Internet Option' and make sure that 'Use SSL 3.0' is ticked in the 'Advanced' section.
Also ensure that SSL Protocol version 3 is supported.
The bundle file must also be specified in the Global SSL section of the .conf file.

I get an intermittent server not found message when trying to access my site.

If the web server is set to check the Certificate Revocation List and the server is down, this can cause a timeout of the operation.
This will not be the certificates, but something related to the browser timing out on the operation.

When I connect via HTTPS to an Apache with Mod_SSL or OpenSSL server with Microsoft Internet Explorer (MSIE) I get various I/O errors. What is the reason?

The first reason is that the SSL implementation in some MSIE versions has some subtle bugs related to the HTTP keep-alive facility and the SSL close notify alerts on socket connection close. Additionally, the interaction between SSL and HTTP/1.1 features are problematic with some MSIE versions, too. You can work-around these problems by forcing Apache with Mod_SSL or OpenSSL to not use HTTP/1.1, keep-alive connections or sending the SSL close notify messages to MSIE clients. This can be done by using the following directive in your SSL virtual host section:

Open the file with any text editor and carefully insert the code piece below in the appropriate place, around the directive for "SSLengine on", you may have to insert it in both the IF and the ELSIF portions of the setup:
$PerlConfig .= "Listen $ip:443\n";
$PerlConfig .= "<VirtualHost $ip:443>\n";

# ------------- INSERT THIS CODE -------------
$PerlConfig .= "SetEnvIf User-Agent \".*MSIE.*\" \\n";
$PerlConfig .= " nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \\n";
$PerlConfig .= " downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0 \n";
# ------------- END INSERT -------------------

$PerlConfig .= "SSLengine on\n";
$PerlConfig .= "SSLCertificateFile /home/sites/$group/certs/certificate\n";
$PerlConfig .= "SSLCertificateKeyFile /home/sites/$group/certs/key\n";
$PerlConfig .= join('', @ssl_conf);

Additionally, some MSIE versions have also problems with particular ciphers. Unfortunately, one cannot work around these bugs only for those MSIE particular clients, because the ciphers are already used in the SSL handshake phase. So, a MSIE-specific SetEnvIf doesn't work to solve these problems. Instead, one has to make more drastic adjustments to the global parameters. Before you decide to do this, make sure your clients really have problems. If not, do not do this, because it affects all your all your clients, including your non-MSIE clients.